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Aug 16, 2019

How Accurate Is the Pew Survey on the Eucharist?

Fr. Thomas Dailey, OSFS

The headline screamed for attention:  “Just one-third of U.S. Catholics agree with their church that Eucharist is body, blood of Christ.”

That’s how Pew Research pushed a “fact-tank” article about transubstantiation. The jarring conclusion came at the beginning:

“In fact, nearly seven-in-ten Catholics (69%) say they personally believe that during Catholic Mass, the bread and wine used in Communion ‘are symbols of the body and blood of Jesus Christ.’ Just one-third of U.S. Catholics (31%) say they believe that ‘during Catholic Mass, the bread and wine actually become the body and blood of Jesus.’”

Shock waves soon followed.  

Among those apoplectic about the assertions is Bishop Robert Barron, arguably the most well-known Catholic apologist of our day. In an “animated” video response, he considers the PEW data to confirm two distressing realities about the present state of evangelization.

The bishop’s own words turn up the fire on what he calls, in general, the “massive failure” on the part of educators (of all sorts) in the Church to carry on our own traditions. More specifically, he points to the inherently futile mentality in the Church that thinks we can divide apologetics (the defense of ideas) and pastoral friendliness (being nice), and should separate concern for doctrine (core beliefs) from that of social work (justice in action).

The bishop is right.  

Our faith is born from and expressed in theology (speech about God).  Theology, in turn, remains a matter of “faith seeking understanding,” as St. Anselm once defined it. What we believe, we try to understand further; when we understand further, we believe more deeply. To grow in the faith means to engage in this cyclical process of seeking God.

Different Survey, Different Results

In terms of understanding how research reports fit into this search process, we need to appreciate how data is derived. Otherwise, headlines become harbingers of truths that may not hold true.  

One factor to consider here is sample size. The Disciple Maker Index, administered by the Catholic Leadership Institute, has currently surveyed 131,845 Catholics around the country about multiple themes connected with parish life.  (By contrast, the PEW survey was based on 1,835 Catholics in a total sample population of 10,971.)  

When asked about doctrines of the faith, seventy-two percent of the DMI respondents strongly agreed with the statement “I personally believe the Eucharist really is the body and blood of Jesus Christ.” Another nineteen percent agreed with that statement. That’s almost 120,000 Catholics claiming they do agree with what the Church teaches, compared to the 569 respondents highlighted in the PEW headline. (We note that the DMI respondents report a significantly high rate of weekly Mass attendance [ninety percent], which likely contributes to the higher level of agreement with Church teaching than reported in the PEW study.)

Words, Words, Words

A second factor to consider concerns the wording of the survey. As Mark Gray from the Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate (CARA) points out, data gathered depends on the questions asked.  

The PEW Research referred to the “actual” presence of Jesus in the bread and wine compared to the bread and wine being (mere) symbols of that presence. Gray theorizes that asking instead about Christ’s “real” presence in the Eucharist would have yielded different results, since “actual” in common parlance tends to mean “factually present as proven by empirical observation.” We’ll see if that turns out to be true when CARA tests the question later this year.

Until then, Catholic theologians and teachers will always have work to do in communicating belief in the real presence of Jesus Christ in the Eucharist, since the notion and reality of transubstantiation remains “an inexhaustible mystery.” But the challenge does not absolve us of the responsibility to inculcate in every generation the central truths of what we believe.

Empty Faith Leads to Empty Pews

So, too, the faithful have a responsibility to seek an ever more mature understanding of what they believe. That understanding doesn’t devolve from headlines, nor is it formed by data. It takes continuing education, well beyond what was taught in parochial school or catechesis. If our faith really matters, we will desire to appreciate what it truly means.

A veteran teacher in a local Catholic elementary school recently reminded me why this topic is so important. Looking ahead to a project-based learning series on the Eucharist for her new students, she pondered aloud the potential impact of this lesson plan: 

“People don’t go to Mass because they don’t believe in the Real Presence, and they don’t believe in the Real Presence because if it were true, then wouldn’t the churches be full?”

There’s a lesson there for all of us.

What can you and your parish community do to increase the faith Catholics have in the Real Presence? Share your ideas in the comments at the bottom of the page.

The Ascension Blog thanks Catholic Leadership Institute for contributing the is article.

You May Also Like:

Toward Recovering a Love for the Eucharist

7 in 10 Catholics Don’t Believe in the Real Presence. How Do We Feel about That?

The Eucharistic Miracle Overseen by Archbishop Bergoglio (Pope Francis)

About Fr. Thomas Dailey

Fr. Tom Dailey, a priest in the Oblates of St. Francis de Sales (OSFS), serves as a research fellow and spiritual advisor at the Catholic Leadership Institute in Wayne, PA.  He holds the John Cardinal Foley Chair of Homiletics and Social Communications at Saint Charles Borromeo Seminary in the Archdiocese of Philadelphia. He writes a monthly column and does occasional podcasts for  Check out his feature on

Featured painting, “The Communion of the Apostles” (1886-1894), by James Tissot sourced from Wikimedia Commons

This article was modified on September 17, 2019.

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  • I attend the Latin Mass on a regular morning basis and the Solemn Mass make believing in Transubstantiation much more likely .
    The Church has gotten away from its roots with the English Mass.

  • Failure all around in so many ways.The Church has made so many mistakes that it is a wonde that it has survived now. It is a testimony to God’s on going Grace given to it. The issues are book length.I will give a few.

    Clergy Scandal is first.The fact that as vocations fell mid century the adverse selection by peds due to relaxed screening killed us.Now you have to clean the mess.Next the Culture has pulled down the youth in regards to religión In general and you don’t have the Will’s and skills plus the numbers of priests etc to right the ship. The culture has also destroyed the family which is the first teacher and model for Faith
    .Then the crazy state of Catholic education which is now a shell of it’s true mission of CATHOLIC education.The teachers in both school and PREP are part of the pew numbers…They don’t know the Faith.How can they teach it? .the number of schools is in total decline.

    Lastly the pew numbers show how misplaced the emphasis Is on Evangelism when what you need is back to catechism! Bringing people into the church or back to the church is not going to happen when you don’t know what you are talking about.No one will listen.
    More bad news…TIME is running! The real true believers are dying faster then WW2 vets….

  • Thank you for this article. Most Catholics don’t understand and it’s obvious as they leave their pews during the Consecration. Shouldn’t we show that same respect during the Consecration that is shown at baseball games? Baseball ushers keep ticket holders from moving down to their seats when a batter is in the box. I think we need to hear an explanation from the altar about this sacred time. The bells ringing ought to be a clue.

  • “What can you and your parish community do to increase the faith Catholics have in the Real Presence? Share your ideas in the comments at the bottom of the page.”

    How about getting back to kneeling before Christ the King and receiving him on our tongue and doing away with the Eucharistic Ministers whose hands (fingers) have NOT been consecrated and, thereby, are unworthy of touching Him? More reverence from the priests would be nice, as well. I have seen a consecrated host dropped at a Novus Ordo Mass and all that was done was it was picked up – no sense of horror – no purification. Contrast that to when the same thing happened at a Latin Mass: Father quickly picked up the host, placed it on the corporal on the altar, placed a purificator over the spot the host hit, and continued distributing Communion. After Mass, I had my boys go up and kneel close to the Communion rail to watch as Father, very meticulously, purified the area where the host fell – making sure no particles were left to be trampled upon. When Our Lord is treated casually, the sense of the Divine and True Presence erodes. Pay Him the respect He deserves. Kneel and receive him on the tongue from a Priest!

  • I’m a cradle Catholic who got my early Catholic instruction back in the 50’s and 60’s. I was an alter boy from 1958 to 1963. Of course this was all during the time of the Latin mass, all pre Vatican II. I served mass literally every single weekend for 5 years. Every church had a communion rail and at communion at every mass I would hold a gold paten under the chin of every communicant kneeling at the communion rail so the paten would catch the smallest particles of the host that might otherwise fall to the floor. After communion the priest would use his consecrated fingers to wipe the paten over the chalice then mixed with some water would consume it. Back then only the consecrated hands of a priest could EVER touch a consecrated host.
    Fast forward to today. Unconsecrated hands of Eucharistic ministers and lay communicants are free to touch consecrated hosts with no concern whatsoever. It has been reported that people have found hosts on the floor and even in parking lots outside church. This is how one treats the true body and blood of Christ? Having spent some time in Protestant churches for various reasons, particularly Episcopal churches that I must say the similarities are such that communion in the Catholic Church and non Catholic Churches seem eerily the same and that shouldn’t be. Being the only church that believes in transubstantiation it should be different, more reverent.
    A visiting foreign priest from South America noted to his American host priest, “in my country many go to confession but not so many go to communion. But here very few go to confession but everyone goes to communion.”
    As I see the entire church get up to go to communion at mass I have asked myself, “ Is everyone really in a good enough state of grace to receive communion? Of course that is really not my place to ask, that’s between each person and God. The Catholic Church has drifted away from its roots. Any wonder that church attendance is dropping. The sex abuse scandal has not helped either. I miss the older more reverent Catholic Church. The way things are going it feels like the Catholic Church is drifting toward protestantism.

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